Published on May 4th, 2015 | by Aisha Abdelhamid
Image Source: energy.gov
Image Source: ytimg.com
Image Source: builditsolar.com
May 4th, 2015 by Aisha Abdelhamid
Originally appear on SolarLove.org.
Eliminating the charge for electricity or accustomed gas, solar heating and cooling technologies instead aggregate and use free, apple-pie thermal activity from the sun. An economical another to solar photovoltaic (PV) systems that aftermath electricity to accumulation all of a property’s activity needs, solar heating and cooling systems artlessly annihilate the charge for electricity to air-conditioned or calefaction the air and baptize in a home or business.
Almost 75% of residential activity burning in the US is accompanying to baptize heating, amplitude heating, and amplitude cooling. According to the Solar Activity Industries Association (SEIA), 115 actor homes absorb $266 billion of activity annually, which is almost the aforementioned as sending 10 actor Americans to academy every year. Likewise, 4.8 actor bartering barrio absorb $107.9 billion of activity annually, of which about 47% is accompanying to heating and cooling.
With so abundant activity burning in the US anon attributed to the heating and cooling of air and water, solar heating and cooling can comedy an important role in accouterment economically applicable and environmentally acceptable solutions for bartering these basic needs.
Solar heating and cooling can additionally comedy an important role in mitigating the appulse of all-around warming. A single-family home with a solar baptize heating arrangement installed will abate its CO2 brand by an boilerplate of 28%, according to the Solar Activity Industries Association (SEIA). With a aggregate solar air water heating system, this abridgement in CO2 can calmly beat 60%. Likewise, businesses and accomplishment plants with aerial architecture air volumes will accomplish agnate CO2 reductions with the accession of solar heating and cooling systems.
Significantly abbreviation America’s assurance on alien fuels, solar heating and cooling (SHC) systems already represent an important agent footfall in the alteration to the solar activity era. Made accepted decades ago as an able agency of heating alfresco pond pools, solar heating and cooling is now frequently acclimated in residential, commercial, and automated applications for heating and cooling both air and water.
The SEIA letters that over 30,000 solar heating and cooling systems are installed annually in the United States, employing added than 5,000 workers beyond America, and breeding an estimated $435 actor in revenue. However, US bazaar assimilation of solar heating and cooling is low, with alone 9 gigawatts thermal (GWth) of installed capacity. In China, on the added hand, solar heating and cooling systems are actuality installed at a bulk 10 times college than in America.
Thermal activity can be generated from abounding renewable sources, such as solar, biomass, and geothermal. These systems are accepted collectively as renewable heating and cooling technologies. Systems which change sunshine into accessible thermal activity are referred to as solar heating and cooling (SHC) technologies.
Measurements of thermal activity are about bidding in British Thermal Units (BTUs), which represent the bulk of activity bare to accession the temperature of one batter of baptize by one bulk Fahrenheit. BTUs, or “therms,” are calmly adapted into kilowatt-hours (kWhs).
Capturing the sun’s activity through solar heating collectors, the calefaction is calmly transferred into barrio for heating and cooling purposes. Solar heating and cooling technology is calmly recyclable and non-toxic, consisting mainly of copper, aluminum, steel, and/or polymers. SHC systems are appropriately advised to accommodated a building’s specific amplitude and baptize heating and cooling needs.
The afterward is a basal account of today’s solar heating and cooling technologies, from “Solar Heating & Cooling: Activity for a Secure Future”:
Meeting the activity needs to calefaction baptize for the boilerplate American home can be accomplished with alone one or two solar calefaction collectors, which crave about 60 aboveboard anxiety (ft2) of roof space. However, added arctic states with decidedly colder acclimate than boilerplate temps may charge a beyond cardinal of solar collectors, almost acute up to 400 ft2.
There are several types of solar collectors, including collapsed plate, abandoned tube, Integral Beneficiary Accumulator (ICS), thermosiphon, and concentrating. Collapsed bowl collectors are the best accepted blazon of beneficiary in the US. Collapsed bowl collectors accept chestnut pipes absorbed to an cushion bowl independent in an cloistral box that is covered with a choleric bottle or polymer coverplate.
Evacuated tube collectors abide of rows of parallel, cellophane bottle tubes that accept been “evacuated” of air, creating a awful able calefaction insulator for the aqueous that runs central the breadth of the tube. Abandoned tube systems are about acclimated aback college temperatures or college volumes of baptize are needed, as able-bodied as for action heating and solar air conditioning systems.
Simple unglazed collectors are about acclimated to calefaction basin baptize or preheat ample volumes of automated action baptize in balmy climates. Collapsed plate, concentrating, and abandoned tube collectors use cellophane awning plates or glazing, metal, or polymer absorbers, and insulation to calmly aftermath calefaction at college temperatures.
While best solar collectors are frequently acclimated for baptize and amplitude heating at temps up to 200°F, apperception collectors are advantageous in automated and accomplishment processes because they can aftermath calefaction in balance of 300°F–400°F.
Solar heating systems are actual able at capturing the sun’s energy. With today’s technology, SEIA letters that solar heating systems “typically aftermath 45 kWhth to 102 kWhth per aboveboard bottom of installed beneficiary breadth per year (or 1.5 to 3.5 therms/ft2 in agnate calefaction units), which is up to 80% of all the accessible solar activity hitting the apparent of the collector.”
Solar air heating systems about use a non-toxic liquid, water, or air to alteration calefaction from the solar collector. Heating baptize or an antifreeze solution, liquid-based systems broadcast the acrimonious aqueous through a calefaction exchanger affiliated to a accumulator tank. Air-based systems calefaction air in a solar air beneficiary and again admirers administer the acrimonious air, circulating it about the home or acreage as bare for amplitude heating. Activity accumulator technologies may additionally be alive with solar heating systems to accommodate calefaction aback there’s no sunshine, and at night. Activity accumulator may additionally be acclimated with solar cooling and solar baptize heating applications.
An another anatomy of solar amplitude heating uses angular installed transpired solar collectors on the southerly wall. Transpired solar collectors accept perforations in them which acquiesce the air to enter, heating it as it rises. As the acrimonious air rises to the top of the wall, it is directed into the blast ducts of the architecture for administration as amplitude heating.
Solar cooling applications are actual useful, as air conditioning represents a above ache on the electrical filigree aback acclimate is actual hot outside. Using this aforementioned calefaction and able sunshine to aftermath solar air conditioning is an ideal band-aid to abate this strain. Additionally referred to as solar-assisted cooling, appropriately sized residential solar cooling systems may additionally be acclimated for amplitude heating during winter months.
Absorption alarming systems and anhydrous systems are the two types of solar cooling systems. The best accepted of the two is assimilation alarming systems, which use solar baptize heating collectors and a thermal-chemical assimilation action to accomplish air-conditioning, with no electricity acclimated in the process. The action is actual agnate to a refrigerator, except that a compressor is not alive in solar cooling. Instead, acrimonious aqueous from the solar beneficiary drives the assimilation cycle.
The additional blazon of solar cooling arrangement is a anhydrous system. Air is cooled by casual over a accepted anhydrous such as silica gel which draws out the clamminess from the air, authoritative it feel added comfortable. Solar calefaction is acclimated to dry out the desiccant, regenerating it for reuse.
SEIA letters that over 9 actor residential baptize heaters in the US are replaced every year, creating a abundant befalling to alteration to solar baptize heating. The bulk is almost low, and best home solar baptize heating systems can be calmly installed in one day. There are two types of solar baptize heating systems: alive systems, relying on an electric pump to broadcast the water, and acquiescent systems, which use thermodynamics to move the water. Alive solar baptize heating systems are the best accepted in the US for both residential and bartering applications.
Solar baptize heaters are composed of three basic elements: the solar collector, cloistral piping, and a hot baptize accumulator tank. Electronic controls can additionally be included, as able-bodied as a benumb aegis arrangement for colder climates. Solar radiation hits the solar collector, the solar beneficiary absorbs the calefaction and transfers it to cooler baptize in the system. Flowing out of the beneficiary into a hot baptize tank, the acrimonious baptize is accessible and acclimated on demand.
With the freezing temperatures of colder regions, an aberrant arrangement is used. In this case, an antifreeze solution, such as non-toxic propylene glycol, is acrimonious in the solar beneficiary and flows to the calefaction exchanger on the hot baptize accumulator tank. The calefaction exchanger transfers the calefaction from the antifreeze solution, abating the accumulator catchbasin abounding with cooler water. This hot baptize is acclimated on demand, while the antifreeze band-aid recycles aback to the solar beneficiary for reheating.
In either case, a appropriately advised and installed solar baptize heating arrangement can accommodate up to 80% of a home or building’s hot baptize needs.
The widest use of solar heating technology in the US today is solar pond basin heating. According to SEIA, over 30,000 solar basin heating systems are installed every year. Because of the affluence of accession and accelerated aftereffect period, civic accepting of solar basin heating in the residential breadth has been consistently aerial over the accomplished 35 years.
SEIA additionally addendum that businesses such as hotels, resorts, accommodation complexes, bloom clubs, and schools are accomplished venues for solar basin heating. With over 186,000 acrimonious bartering pools in the country, added than 60% are central and crave heating year-round. Alfresco bartering pools are about acrimonious continuously, as well. As acclaimed by SEIA, “The bulk of activity adapted to calefaction a competition-sized alfresco basin amid in a balmy altitude such as California is agnate to the anniversary accustomed gas burning of about 150 single-family homes, so cogent activity accumulation can be accomplished in this area.”
Depending on the altitude and whether the basin is amid central or outdoors, the solar basin heating arrangement will crave the adapted solar collector. Acrimonious baptize again flows from the solar beneficiary through the pond pool’s filtration arrangement to alteration the acrimonious baptize into the pool.
Residential solar baptize heating systems about ambit amid $6,000–$10,000, according to SEIA, depending on arrangement blazon and geographic location. This bulk is decidedly bargain by the Federal Investment Tax Credit (ITC) and assorted local, state, and account allurement programs. The abroad amount of installed systems is about $3,000–$5,000 with these incentives, and the aftereffect aeon is about in the 4–8 year range.
Typical bartering applications accommodate amplitude heating, cooling, and baptize heating. Architecture types that are decidedly adapted for these solar applications, according to SEIA, accommodate “military facilities, accomplishment plants, ample multi-family residential barrio and affordable housing, borough facilities, hotels, aged and apprentice housing, hospitals, action centers, and agronomical operations.” Bartering and automated systems about ambit amid $20,000–$1,000,000, depending on admeasurement and the heating or cooling load. Depending on application, location, and banking incentives, the aftereffect aeon for bartering systems can be additionally as low as 4–8 years.
SEIA addendum that basic expenditures (CAPEX) for solar heating and cooling systems are about college than accepted ammunition systems, but on the added hand, operational costs (OPEX) are abundant lower because the ammunition is generated and supplied for free. Budgeting ammunition costs becomes a affair of the past, blurred OPEX decidedly with the alteration to clean, renewable solar heating and cooling technologies.
The baby residential breadth represents about 80% of the accepted solar heating and cooling bazaar aggregate in the US. By accretion solar heating and cooling systems to accomplish about 8% of America’s absolute heating and cooling needs, SEIA estimates that this could displace an agnate of 64 atramentous plants, or about 226 actor bags of account carbon emissions every year.
“Solar Heating & Cooling: Activity for a Secure Future,” developed by SEIA-member companies and BEAM Engineering, lays the background for accomplishing this 8% by active installed solar heating and cooling accommodation from today’s 9 GW thermal to 300 GW thermal by 2050. SEIA predicts this would accompany added than 50,000 good-paying American jobs and an estimated $61 billion in anniversary activity accumulation for homeowners, businesses, schools, and governments.
SEIA President and CEO Rhone Resch reports, “In 1891, artist Clarence Kemp of Baltimore patented the aboriginal bartering solar baptize boiler in America. Kemp amid a simple metal catchbasin in a board box, creating the alleged ‘batch’ baptize heater. Looking back,” says Resch, “we’ve absolutely appear a continued way back then!”
All pictures via SEIA.org
Aisha Abdelhamid is a freelance affairs and ecology science biographer currently active in Vancouver, BC. Her interests accommodate ecology conservation, altitude science, renewable energy, faith-based ecology activism, blooming building, artistic lifestyles, and advantageous living.
Image Source: ytimg.com
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